Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan
Western Tien-Shan is a transboundary and serial property situated in the highly mountainous areas spanning three Central Asian countries. The property is divided into seven protected areas that capture some of the most biodiverse components of an already species rich region. Western Tien-Shan is perhaps most famous for its populations of wild relatives to modern day commercial fruit trees, such as apricot and pear, but most notably for apple, which is thought to have originated in this region. The property also supports a large number of animal species, many of which are threatened, such as the snow leopard and saker falcon. The topographically dramatic landscape remains largely forested and acts as a key biodiversity reservoir for the region.
Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan
MIXED NATURAL & CULTURAL WORLD HERITAGE SITE
2016: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under natural criterion x.
STATEMENT OF OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE
The UNESCO World Heritage Committee issued the following Statement of Outstanding Universal Value at the time of inscription:
Western Tien-Shan represents an exceptional diversity and beauty of a mosaic of landscapes, a unique combination of different types of ecosystems, outstanding diversity of fauna and flora with a considerable proportion of endemic species and communities, as well as a large number of rare and threatened species. It is among most species rich sites in the Pamir-Tien-Shan Highlands province and close to half of its species are endemic to Middle Asia. Western Tien-Shan has an exceptional value as a centre of origin of cultivated plants. It is home to a number of wild species related to domesticated fruit plants including wild apples, apricot, pistachio, vine, plum, pear, walnut and hawthorn. Criterion (x): The Western Tien-Shan supports outstanding diversity of plant and animal species with high level of endemism and many species of global conservation importance. The vertebrate biodiversity found in the region of Western Tien Shan includes 61 species of mammals, 316 species of birds, 17 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians and more than 20 fish species, and almost all of these species are reported as occurring in the area of the property.
The Western Tien-Shan supports 14 species of flora and 18 of fauna listed as globally threatened by IUCN. These include several wild relatives of today’s commercial fruit trees such as wild apricot Armeniaca vulgaris (EN), Siever’s apple Malus sieversii (VU) and walnut Juglans regia (NT), as well as other rare species, such as Crataegus knorringiana (CR); Lonicera karataviensis (CR), Betula talassica (EN), Spiraeanthus schrenkianus (EN) etc. Among the fauna, these are saker falcon Falco cherrug (EN), Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus (EN), cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus (NT), charismatic snow leopard Uncia uncia (EN), wild sheep Ovis ammon with two subspecies (nigrimontana at Karatau - 80% of the global population - and karelini), Menzbier’s marmot Marmota menzbieri, European marbled polecat Vormela peregusna (VU). Invertebrates have high level of endemism.
Protected areas included in the property have adequate level of protection corresponding to IUCN categories Ia and II. Individual components of the property are sufficient to jointly maintain functioning of natural systems of Western Tien-Shan and fully represent the properties and processes that reflect their significance. The main pressures to the property are poaching, cattle grazing, illegal logging, haying, illegal harvesting of flowers etc. The typical kinds of natural disasters in the Western Tien- Shan are rock falls, landslides, mudslides, avalanches; droughts lead to fires in dry years. Some parts of the property are surrounded by highly populated areas and as result they have possibility for good number of visitors from one side and threat from uncontrolled recreation from other side. In all the protected areas these threats and pressures are taken into consideration in management plans and the staff is regularly trained for control and adequate reaction in case of disasters.
Protection and Management Requirements
All components of the property are state protected areas of national importance and are protected under national legislations of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Reserves have status of strictly protected natural areas, where any use of animals and plants and any economic activities are prohibited. Also, a very limited access of visitors, obligatory accompanied by protected areas inspectors and only in specially designated areas is allowed. Sayram-Ugam national park has areas with the same strictly protected regimes as in reserves, as well areas accessible for visitors and for strictly limited use of nature. All areas of Western Tien-Shan are properties of the government, each of them have its own administration and staff and they are managed by an authorised state executive bodies of each country with funding from the state budgets.
The property as a whole will be managed by a transboundary Steering Committee (consisting of representatives of the protected areas and of responsible governmental bodies) with the main role for coordination of conservation and management efforts, exchange of experience and information. The Committee will be established shortly after inscription of Western Tien-Shan in the World Heritage List and will work as intergovernmental group with scheduled meetings (at least once a year) and teleconferences.
1978: The Chatkal UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve is designated in Uzbekistan.
1979: The Sary-Chelek UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve is designated in Kyrgyzstan.
2016: The property is successfully inscribed as a World Heritage Site under natural criterion x.
IUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORY
|Ia Strict Nature Reserve||Aksu-Jabagly State Nature Reserve|
|Ia Strict Nature Reserve||Besh-Aral State Nature Reserve|
|II National Park||Sairam-Ugam National Park|
Turanian (2.21.8)\ Pamir-Tian-Shan Highlands (2.36.12)
Western Tien-Shan is both a transnational and serial property that spans the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. The property is situated within the Tian-Shan Mountains, one of the seven largest mountain ranges on the planet, which spans 2,500 km and four countries. With the addition of the Altai Mountains to the north, Kunlun Mountains to the south and the Pamir Mountains to the west, the region covers significant topographical diversity. The property itself is predominantly located in a triangle between the Kyrgyzstan town of Sheker, the Uzbekistan capital of Tashkent and the Kazakhstan town of Shymkent. However, three of the component parts are considerably further north in Kazakhstan, closer to Kentau.
DATES AND HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT
1926: The Aksu-Jabagly State Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, is designated;
1978: The Chatkal UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve, Uzbekistan, is designated;
1979: The Sary-Chelek UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve, Kyrgyzstan, is designated;
1979: The Besh-Aral State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan, is designated;
1990: The Sairam-Ugam State National Nature Park, Uzbekistan, is designated;
2002: The Karatau State Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, is designated;
2003: The Padysha-Ata State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan, is designated;
2016: The property is successfully inscribed as a World Heritage Site under natural criterion x.
Except for 13.2 ha of private property in Sairam-Ugam State Nature Park, all of the property within Kazakhstan is owned by the government. All of the property within Kyrgyzstan has been subordinated to the State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry by the Kyrgyzstan government. The property situated within Uzbekistan is under public ownership of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The property consists of 13 distinct component parts that cumulatively cover 528,177 ha and has an additional buffer zone of 102,915 ha.
|State Party||Protected Area||Component||Property (ha)||Buffer zone (ha)|
The property ranges from 700 metres above sea level (a.s.l) at the Mynzhylki Massif, Kazakhstan, to 4,503 metres a.s.l. at Aflatun Peak, Kyrgyzstan.
The property’s topography is characterised by high mountain tops that descend quickly into steep river valleys. The property is located at the junction of two geological formation zones: North Tian-Shan and Karatau-Naryn, with the Tian-Shan Mountains being considered the younger formation. The Tian-Shan Mountains are predominantly composed of Proterozoic crystalline gneisses and sedimentary rocks from the Paleozoic era. The soils of the property are clearly stratified by altitude, with 12 distinct soil types ranging from ‘alpine common’ at high altitudes to ‘alluvial: forest meadow and meadow’ in the pastures of the valleys. Springs, streams and rivers are all common throughout the property, with snowmelt from the higher peaks producing the greatest flows in spring.
Karatau is composed largely of rocky ridges and the Mynzhylki Massif, which start at 700 metres a.s.l and rise to just over 2,000 metres. The area has distinctly steep ravines which are interspersed with both seasonal and permanent streams. There are three main rivers in this part of the property: Baiyldyr, Khantagi and Biresik.
Aksu-Jabagy, though still mountainous, does not extend above 2,800 metres, and has generally more gentle slopes than some other areas in the property. The area does have extensive rock exposure, with alluvial fans of rocks and moraine deposits, as well as multiple small lakes.
Sairam-Ugam is mountainous, with the highest point, Sailam peak, reaching 4,238 metres a.s.l. Several ridges branch off from this point, creating steep ‘v’ shaped valleys throughout the property. A couple of glaciers are still present, with the largest being situated around Sailam Peak.
Sary-Chelek is situated in an alpine basin protected by three distinct ridges: Chatkal, Atoinok and Bozbu-Too, which rise up to around 4,000 metres. The area’s main river, the Khodzha-Ata, is predominantly fed through melting snows and glaciers, which also feed several large lakes in the area, which can reach several hundred metres in depth.
Besh-Aral is surrounded by two ridges: Pskem and Chatkal. There are numerous scree slopes and intermontane troughs. The Chatkal River and its feeders function as the main waterway in the area.
Padysha-Ata is characterised by high contrasts in its topography. The lower slopes of Padysha-Ata have low-lying alluvial cones, often covered by vegetation, and ‘adyrs’ which resemble smooth undulations with blunted peaks. When moving up the valley, the adyrs become larger. The Padysha-Ata River is interspersed with large boulders but remains a fast-flowing river.
Chatkal, like most other parts of the property, contains a multitude of steep slopes and small lakes. The area is particularly difficult to access despite the absence of glaciers.
The region has a distinctly continental climate, with cold and snowy winters followed by hot, dry summers. Because the region is very mountainous, the climate experiences notable zonality and microclimates. The coldest months for the property are between November and January, where temperatures can go as low as -38oC (Piedmont area) and snow can easily go above 1 metre in the medium-altitude mountains. Comparatively, the summer months can be very hot and reach maximums of 47oC (Karatau). Precipitation within the property falls mainly between February and June and varies widely in terms of altitude, with lower slopes in certain parts of the property receiving in the region of 100 mm and higher altitudes often receiving over 800 mm.
The property, and the region more broadly, are of high biological importance for the resident fruit forests, which contain 10 species of wild relatives to domesticated plants. The western Tien-Shan region is one of 12 centres globally for agrobiodiversity, containing 38 important crop species and 20% of the world’s cereals, vegetable and spice plants (Dzhangaliev et al. 2003). These plant species span: apples, plums, walnuts, apricots, pistachios and wild vines. Some of these wild relatives are of particular value, for example Siverse’s apple tree (Malus siversii; VU), which has been demonstrated to be the progenitor of today’s apples, and originates in Kazakhstan’s Tien-Shan (Harris et al. 2002). The region has also been identified as containing high numbers of endemic species (Taft et al. 2011; Wagner 2009). The property also has many other plant species and habitats of conservation interest, which are described below.
Karatau has seven distinct vegetation communities, and around 540 recorded species of plant as of 2008. Of these, 65 are considered endemic to the Karatau reserve, such as the Karatau honeysuckle (Lonicera karataviensis; CR). The property also contains abundant communities of wormwood species (Artemisia spp).
Both Aksu-Jabagly and Sairam-Ugam are largely covered by woodland, with Sairam-Ugam also having established shrub habitats, which support 58 known arboreal shrub species. Combined, these two component areas contain an approximate 1,700 species of plant, of which around 1,400 are higher plants spanning 470 genera and 70 families. Combined, the two properties support 19 endemic genera to the Central Asian region. Species of particular conservation concern include: wild apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris; EN), talsa birch (Betula talassica; EN) and nedzvetsky’s apple (Malus niedzwetzkyana; EN).
Sary-Chelek was designated with the conservation and restoration of walnut and fruit forests in mind. The site also has thick coniferous forests containing Picea and Abies spp. The area is thought to contain over 1,700 species of higher plants alone, spanning 570 genera. Comparatively, the floral communities of Padysha-Ata are poorly known.
Besh-Aral contains 388 species of plant, though the area is still comparatively poorly studied and it is expected that the real figure may be closer to 1,500 species. The area does also contain several medicinal plant species.
Chatkal has almost 60% woodland cover, predominantly with juniper (Juniperus spp.), apples (Malus spp.) and cherry plum (Prunus spp.). The area contains approximately 1,200 species and subspecies, of which around 25 are classified as endemic.
In the wider region (Western Tien-Shan), there are thought to be 61 mammal, 316 bird, 17 reptile, 3 amphibian and more than 20 fish species, with most of these species expected to be within the property. Invertebrates are still poorly studied in the property, but it has been estimated that there could be as many as 10,000 species.
Karatau has 20 mammal, 118 bird, 9 reptile, 2 fish and 182 invertebrate species. Of these, several are of conservation concern, including the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni; VU), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus; EN), saker falcon (Falco cherrug; EN) and eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca; VU).
Aksu-Jabagly and Sairam-Ugam combined have 54 mammal, 240 bird, 11 reptile, 2 amphibian and 2 fish species. There is an estimated 5,000 invertebrate species for both sites combined, though this figure stems from an estimate of 2,500 for Aksu-Jabagly and an unknown amount from Sairam-Ugam. Threatened species within the component areas include great bustard (Otis tarda: VU), pale-backed pigeon (Columba eversmanni: VU) and Menzbier’s marmot (Marmota menzbieri: VU).
Kyrgyzstan: Sary-Chelek has 43 mammal, 157 bird, 7 reptile, 2 amphibian 4 fish and 2,000 insect species. The area’s avifauna represents around 50% of Kyrgyzstan’s avifauna, and the property resides close to a well-known local bird migratory route. The property contains the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: EN), pallas’s cat (Otocolobus manul: NT), as well as the less threatened but equally charismatic brown bear (Urcus arctos isabellinus) and Turkestan Lynx (Lynx isabellinus).
Padysha-Ata is not as well studied as the other component parts of the property, but is thought to have 31 mammal and 51 bird species, and its faunal composition is thought to resemble that of Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve.
Besh-Aral has 36 mammal, 150 bird, 6 reptile, 2 amphibian and 4 fish species. Like other component parts of the property, many of the mammals are carnivorous, including species such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus) and steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanii). The site also contains globally threatened species including the European marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna: EN) and dhole (Cuon alpinus: EN)
Uzbekistan:\ Chatkal is one of the better studied component parts of the property, and contains 36 mammal, 184 bird, 14 reptile, 2 amphibian, 6 fish and 1,360 insect species. Threatened species within Chatkal include the steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis: EN) and bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus).
The property is situated within the Mountains of Central Asia biodiversity hotspot (Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) 2016). It is also found in the Mountains of Middle Asia Centre for Plant Diversity. Several components of the property were identified as being worthy of inscription onto the World Heritage List as they are particularly representative of the Tian-Shan habitats (Thorsell & Hamilton 2004). Similarly, the Central Asian mountain ranges, and more specifically the Western Tien-Shan, have also been highlighted as being a priority region (Magin & Chape 2004). The property successfully demonstrates the value of being a serial site, encompassing some of the most diverse areas of an already megadiverse region, with each component part having a very rich assemblage of species, often of conservation concern. The property also incorporates two UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves and three Important Bird Areas (IBAs) (BirdLife International 2016a; BirdLife International 2016b; BirdLife International 2016c). Furthermore, the property ties together seven protected areas, one of which, Aksu-Jabagly State Nature Reserve, is considered highly irreplaceable in terms of its biodiversity (Bertzky et al. 2013). The property is clearly of significant conservation value, harbouring high species richness across multiple taxa and containing very high levels of endemism.
Western Tien-Shan was first settled hundreds of thousands of years ago. The inhabitants of the time have left traces of their presence in caves throughout the region, notably in tools for hunting and workshops for creating stone-based implements. It is thought that around 3,000 years ago the first extraction of ores, ferrous metals and other precious metals started. By the 7th century A.D., the area is thought to have already been densely populated, with agriculture developing and trade developing between nomadic peoples. The great silk way trade route passed through the region, bringing with it multiple opportunities for far-reaching trade. The inhabitants of the region practice a combination of pre-Islamic (ekfil) and traditional Islamic traditions.
LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION
All three components of the property in Kazakhstan have a low number of residents: Karatau (4), Aksu-Jabagly (30) and Sayram-Ugam (200). Aksu-Jabagly and Sayram-Ugam also have residents in their buffer zones. In total, there are 234 residents within the Kazakhstani component parts and approximately 3,000 residents in the buffer zones. The areas around Aksu-Jabagly are some of the most densely populated in Kazakhstan.
Sary-Chelek is the only component in Kyrgyzstan to have residents inside the property, whereas the other three components have residents only in their buffer zones. There are a total of 1,200 residents in the Kyrgyzstan component parts and approximately 5,000 residents in the buffer zones. Sary-Chelek contains a high level of inhabitants because of the village of Arkyt, predominantly supporting a community of farmers.
There are no stated numbers of residents within Chatkal Man and Biosphere Reserve; however, it is mentioned that five villages lie in close proximity to the property, with a combined population of 24,000.
VISITORS AND VISITOR FACILITIES
Visitor facilities vary between the component parts of the property. In Kazakhstan, the Kentau component has a hotel, a small visitor centre and an observation deck. Guides are available and approximately 35 to 315 visitors are guided each year. Aksu-Jabagy contains a visitor centre and one hotel, with more accommodation being constructed nearby. In 2010, there were just over 2,000 visitors to the site. Saram-Ugam National Park has five observation platforms, a hostel and a number of guesthouses run by local residents. Although Saram-Ugam has more limited visitor facilities, it still received about 3,700 visitors in 2008.
Ecotourism is listed as being an integral component of visitor facilities and management within the Kyrgyzstan components of the property. However, there are no stated visitor statistics for these component parts, although it is known that visitor numbers have been gradually increasing on an annual basis.
Chatkal has a nature museum which has been visited by around 350 people in both 2009 and 2010. There is no information relating to any accommodation facilities.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND FACILITIES
There are two research bases (Kishi-Kaindy and Ulken Kaindy) within Aksu-Jabagy, both of which are also occasionally used for tourism purposes. Near these two research bases, there are also campsites that have historically been used by research staff to undertake their studies. These sites do not contain any specialist equipment.
The property is managed by a steering committee which consists of representatives of the protected areas and the responsible governmental agencies from each country. The committee is responsible for the coordination of management efforts, experience and information exchange and the achievement of conservation objectives. The committee was to be established upon inscription of the property on the World Heritage List, and was planned to meet once a year. Every individual protected area within the property has its own management plan, which will now be factored into the integrity and protection of the entire property. In terms of implementation, there are ranger stations and ground patrols on foot or on horse in each of the individual components of the property. Each site has a considerable number of staff for the protection of the site from threats such as poaching or illegal deforestation.
The three component areas of the property within Kazakhstan experience seven major constraints according to their management plans, namely poaching, cattle grazing, illegal logging, haymaking, unorganised tourism, illegal harvesting of biotic resources and air pollution. All three component areas are located in one of the most densely populated areas in Kazakhstan; however, the population per se is not considered overly damaging. Illegal logging is considered the most harmful of these threats, as it has far-reaching impacts on the wider habitat.
The three component areas of the property in Kyrgyzstan experience three major management constraints: cattle grazing, illegal logging and haymaking. All three of which also affect the wider region more broadly (Farrington 2005). As in the Kazakhstani components, illegal logging is considered the most damaging, with particular impact being noticed on two species: the Semenov fir (Abies semenovii) and Tien Shan spruce (Picea schrenikiana).
The Chatkal reserve in Uzbekistan has four major management constraints: air pollution, geological exploration, cattle grazing and the reserve’s own activity. The reserve’s own activity is the least damaging, as it only consists of collecting firewood and grazing around 50 mares, though grazing has historically been a problem.
In addition to these human-induced management constraints and threats, there are also environmental pressures, for example natural hazards (fires, floods and landslides) and natural-born diseases that can affect tree species, e.g. most recently on Juniper species.
As of 2010, there were 223 staff for the three component parts of the property in Kazakhstan. Most of these (110) are based in Sairam-Ugam, followed by Aksu-Jabagly (69) and lastly Karatau (44). For each site, there are staff for management, security, technical issues and environmental education. There are also research staff at Sairam-Ugam and Aksu-Jabagly.
There were 124 staff in the three component parts of the property in Kyrgyzstan in 2010. These staff are more evenly distributed between Sary-Chelek (49), Besh-Aral (42) and Padysha-Ata (33). Each protected area also has staff in one of four divisions: Executive Office, Department of Science, Department of Security and Monitoring and Maintenance Department.
The Chatkal UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Uzbekistan had a total of 92 staff in 2010, the majority of which (39) are employed for security measures. The Uzbekistan component of the property also contains research staff (14).
The main source of funding for the component parts situated in Kazakhstan is the national government, provided through the state authority – the Forestry and Wildlife Committee (FWC) for Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The amount of funding has been increasing, from USD\$ 1,323,470 in 2009 to USD\$ 1,614,870 in 2011 (indexed at 2009 conversion rates). Hunting permits also provide an additional source of income for Sairam-Ugam, providing about 6% of the component area’s total funding in 2010.
Similarly, the Kyrgyzstan components of the property are also predominantly funded through the state budget via the State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry (SAEPF) of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. Funding to the component parts of the property is intermittent and varied considerably between 2006 and 2011, with highs of USD\$ 639,400 in 2006 and lows of USD\$ 103,000 in 2010. The Kyrgyzstan components of the property get additional revenue streams from guided tours to visitors, which accounts for approximately 5% of the budget for the three Kyrgyzstani components.
Chatkal is also supported through the national government and administered through the Tashkent regional khokimiyat. The site received in the region of USD\$ 240,000 – 390,000 annually between 2008 and 2010.
Centre for Conservation Biology of the Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity of Kazakhstan, Orbita-1 district, 40, off. 203, Almaty, 050043, Kazakhstan, +7 – 727-2203877
Ecological Movement of Kyrgyzstan, Sovetskaya str., 137, app.7, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan +996 312 298450
Department of Control of Biological Resources of State Committee for Nature Protection of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Chashtepinskaya str., 21a, Tashkent, 100149, Uzbekistan
The principal sources for the above information were the original nomination for World Heritage status, the IUCN evaluation report and the site’s management plans.
Bertzky, B. et al. (2013). Terrestrial Biodiversity and the World Heritage List: identifying broad gaps and potential candidate sites for inclusion in the natural World Heritage network. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
BirdLife International (2016a). Important Bird Area factsheet: Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/site/factsheet/bashkyzylsay-unit-of-the-chatkal-mountains-biosphere-reserve-iba-uzbekistan.
BirdLife International (2016b). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Aksu-Zhabagly State Nature Reserve. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/site/factsheet/aksu-dzhabagly-state-nature-reserve-iba-kazakhstan.
BirdLife International (2016c). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kenshektau Mountains. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/site/factsheet/kenshektau-mountains-iba-kazakhstan.
Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF). (2016). Biodiversity hotspots: Mountains of Central Asia. Available at: http://www.cepf.net/resources/hotspots/Europe-and-Central-Asia/Pages/Mountains-of-Central-Asia.aspx.
Dzhangaliev, A.D., Salova, T.N. & Turekhanova, P.M. (2003). The wild fruit and nut plants of Kazakhstan. Hortical Reviews - Westport then New York 29: 305–372.
Farrington, J.D. (2005). A report on protected areas, biodiversity, and conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan. Fulbright Fellow-Environmental Studies Kyrgyzstan, Former Soviet Central Asia 2003-2004:13–18.
Harris, S.A., Robinson, J.P. & Juniper, B.E. (2002). Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. TRENDS in Genetics 18(8): 426–430.
Magin, C. and S. Chape. (2004). Review of the World Heritage Network: Biogeography, Habitats and Biodiversity. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
Taft, J.B. et al. (2011). Grassland composition, structure, and diversity patterns along major environmental gradients in the Central Tien Shan. Plant Ecology, 212(8): 1349–1361.
Thorsell, J. & Hamilton, L. (2004). A global overview of mountain protected areas on the World Heritage List. Managing Mountain Protected Areas: Challenges and Responses for the 21st century. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Wagner, V. (2009). Eurosiberian meadows at their southern edge: patterns and phytogeography in the NW Tien Shan. Journal of Vegetation science 20(2): 199–208.