The property is located between the mountains of central China and the foothills of eastern China. The heavily forested region is considered to be one of three centres for endemic plants within China, with 1,793 of the estimated 3,767 plant species within the property being endemic to China. There are also multiple animal species of conservation interest, notably the Golden or Sichuan snub-nosed monkey, which is seen as a national treasure in China. The property also has a rich cultural history, both in a national context as a political refuge and in an international context as a staging site on the southern Silk Road.
MIXED NATURAL & CULTURAL WORLD HERITAGE SITE
2016: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under natural criteria ix and x.
STATEMENT OF OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE
The UNESCO World Heritage Committee issued the following Statement of Outstanding Universal Value at the time of inscription:
Hubei Shennongjia is located in the Shennongjia Forestry District and Badong County in China’s Hubei Province. Shennongjia is on the ecotone from the plains and foothill regions of eastern China to the mountainous region of central China. It is also situated along a zone of climate transition, where the climate shifts from the subtropical zone to warm temperate zone, and where warm and cold air masses from north and south meet and are controlled by the Subtropical Gyre.
The property covers 73,318 ha and consists of two components, the larger Shennongding/Badong component in the west and the smaller Laojunshan component to the east. A buffer zone of 41,536 ha surrounds the property. Hubei Shennongjia includes 11 types of vegetation which are characterized by a diversity of altitudinal gradients. The Shennongjia region is considered to be one of three centres of endemic plant species in China, a reflection of its geographical transitional position which has shaped its biodiversity, ecosystems and biological evolution. Hubei Shennongjia exhibits globally impressive levels of species richness and endemism especially within its flora, 3,767 vascular plant species have been recorded including a remarkable 590 temperate plant genera. In addition, 205 plant species and 2 genera are endemic to the property, and 1,793 species endemic to China. Among the fauna, more than 600 vertebrate species have been recorded including 92 mammal, 399 bird, 55 fish, 53 reptile and 37 amphibian species. 4,365 insect species have been identified. The property includes numerous rare and endangered species such as the Golden or Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey, Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard, Asian Golden Cat, Dhole, Asian Black Bear, Indian Civet, Musk Deer, Chinese Goral and Chinese Serow, Golden Eagle, Reeve’s Pheasant and the world’s largest amphibian the Chinese Giant Salamander.
Shennongjia has been a place of significant scientific interest and its mountains have featured prominently in the history of botanical inquiry. The site has a special status for botany and has been the object of celebrated international plant collecting expeditions conducted in the 19th and 20th centuries. From 1884 to 1889 more than 500 new species were recorded from the area. Shennongjia is also the global type location for many species.
Hubei Shennongjia protects the largest primary forests in Central China and is one of three centres of endemic plant species in China. The property includes 11 types of vegetation and an intact altitudinal vegetation spectrum across six gradients including evergreen broad-leaved forest, mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest, deciduous broad-leaved forest, mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, and bush/meadow. With 874 species of deciduous woody plants, belonging to 260 genera, the tree species and genus richness of the site is unparalleled for a deciduous broadleaf forest type worldwide and within the Northern Hemisphere’s evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests, Hubei Shennongjia contains the most complete altitudinal natural belts in the world. Hubei Shennongjia is situated in the Daba Mountains Evergreen Forests ecoregion and also within a priority ecoregion, the Southwest China Temperate Forest both of which are not yet represented on the World Heritage List. It also protects the Shennongjia regional centre of plant diversity which has been identified as a gap on the World Heritage List. In association with its floral diversity the property protects critical ecosystems for numerous rare and endangered animal species.
Hubei Shennongjia’s unique terrain and climate has been relatively little affected by glaciation and thus creates a haven for numerous rare, endangered and endemic species, as well as many of the world’s deciduous woody species. The property exhibits high levels of species richness, especially among vascular plants, and remarkably contains more than 63% of the temperate genera found across all of China, a megabiodiverse country with the world’s greatest diversity of temperate plant genera. The property includes 12.9% of the country’s vascular plant species. The mountainous terrain also contains critical habitat for a range of flagship animal species. 1,550 Golden or Sichuan Snub nosed Monkeys are recorded in the property. The Golden Snub-nosed Monkeys in Shennongjia are the most endangered of the 3 sub-species in China and are entirely restricted to the property. Other important species include Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard, Asian Golden Cat, Dhole, Asian Black Bear, Indian Civet, Musk Deer, Chinese Goral, Chinese Serow, Golden Eagle, Reeve’s Pheasant and the world’s largest amphibian the Chinese Giant Salamander. The property has extremely rich biodiversity, contains a large number of type species, and hosts numerous rare species which have been introduced into horticulture worldwide. Internationally, Shennongjia holds a special place for the study of plant systematics and horticultural science.
The property covers 73,318 ha and is coincident with the majority of the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve in Shennongjia Forestry District. The larger Shennongding/Badong component in the west is 62,851 ha and includes the northern section of the Yanduhe Provincial Nature Reserve in adjoining Badong County. The Laojunshan component at 10,467 ha lies in the east. A buffer zone of 41,536 ha surrounds the property. The property is large enough to encompass all the essential components that form the unique biodiversity, biological and ecological values of the Shennongjia in Hubei. The boundaries are designated and clearly demarcated on the ground. The property remains in good condition and threats are generally not of significant concern. However, the division of the site by National Highway 209 and the associated 10 km wide corridor is a cause for concern as it impedes wildlife movements and ecological connectivity. The implementation of an effective conservation connectivity strategy involving wildlife corridors, stepping stones or arrays of small patches of habitat, wildlife road crossings and the removal of fences is therefore essential to facilitate ecological connectivity for mobile wildlife, especially those species which normally require sizable habitat ranges.
Protection and Management Requirements
All of the property is owned by the state and has national or provincial protection status. Hubei Shennongjia is subject to a range of national, provincial and local laws and regulations which ensure long term strict protection. A multi-level management system has been established to manage the property. The property is subject to a number of plans and has a specific Hubei Shennongjia Management Plan tailored to World Heritage requirements and aimed at safeguarding the site’s Outstanding Universal Value. The management plan needs to be updated to cover management of the Yanduhe Provincial Nature Reserve in Badong County. The management plan should in addition elaborate on measures to integrate different areas of management expertise in a coordinated way across the different protected areas and other national and international designations. The management plan should be a forward-thinking tool that supports adaptive management. Zoning systems should be reviewed to account for the specific habitat and spatial needs of key species.
The property enjoys widespread support among all levels of Government, local people and other stakeholders. The property requires long-term, active management of the buffer zone to ensure that any developments are of an appropriate scale and design according to the values of the property. Furthermore, that surrounding land uses are sympathetic to the Decisions adopted during the 40th session of the WHC/16/40.COM/19, p.187 World Heritage Committee (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) values of the property and generate sustainable benefits to local communities. Increased attention and capacity is needed to manage issues within the buffer zone.
A concern stems from the potential of tourism use at the property to increase significantly. Significant improvements to transport infrastructure, most notably the opening of the nearby Shennongjia Airport in 2014, has the potential to dramatically increase visitation and consequent impact. Tourism planning, management and monitoring need to anticipate increasing demand and mitigate negative impacts.
Other threats relate to buffer zone developments and activities. Developments and encroaching land use such as for tea cultivation need ongoing monitoring. Attention should be given to integrated conservation and community development initiatives in the buffer zones to foster stronger community stewardship of the World Heritage property.
1990: The Hubei Shennongjia UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve is established;
2016: The property is inscribed as a World Heritage Site under natural criteria ix and x.
IUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORY
Ia (Strict Nature Reserve)
Oriental Deciduous Forest (2.15.6)
The property is located in the north-western part of the Hubei Province, central-eastern China. Shennongjia is the county-level administrative unit within the broader province of Hubei and is contiguous with Chongqing province to the south-west. The property is approximately 350 km west of Hubei Province’s capital, Wuhan. The property is split into two component parts by the 209 national road, though joined by the property’s buffer zone.
DATES AND HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT
1982: The Shennongjia protected areas are established by the People’s Government of Hubei Province;
1986: The State Council approves the establishment of the Shennongjia national forest and wildlife nature reserve;
1990: The Hubei Shennongjia UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve is established;
1995: Shennongjia is one of the first ten nature reserves in China to be funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Trust Fund;
2006: Shennongjia is inscribed on the first list of demonstration protected areas of the national forest system;
2009: The management plan for Shennongjia is revised by the Administrative Bureau of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, with the aim to strengthen management and protection of the property;
2011: Shennongjia becomes a national forest tourism demonstration area and a level 5a tourist attraction;
2013: Shennongjia becomes a UNESCO Global Geopark;
2016: The property is inscribed as a World Heritage Site under natural criteria ix and x.
Article 9 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China states that apart from land owned by collectives in accordance to Article 9, all mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grassland, un-reclaimed land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the state. Therefore, the property, along with the public facilities and infrastructure within, is owned by the People’s Republic of China. There are, however, residential buildings and ancillary facilities which are personal properties as well as service facilities which belong to private enterprises.
The property covers 67,087 ha and is comprised of two component parts: Shennongding (56,620 ha) and Laojunshan (10,467 ha). In addition, there is a buffer zone of 39,775 ha.
The property ranges from 420 metres above sea level (a.s.l.) at the Shizhu River to 3,106 metres a.s.l. at Shennong Peak, the highest mountain in central China. The east-west range of mountains reduce in altitude towards the north-east. Most of the mountains in the property are above 1,500 metres a.s.l, though there are 26 above 2,500 metres a.s.l.
The property is often referred to being part of the second of China’s three-tiered terrain, which reduces in altitude from the south-west. This second tier is characterised by karstic mountains and river valleys which have been strongly influenced by glacial and fluvial processes over millennia. The Shennongjia Mountain range, although found predominantly in Shennongjia Forest District, also spans nine other counties, seven in Hubei and two in neighbouring Chongqing. The mountain range is orientated in an east-west direction, being highest in the south-west and lowest in the north-east. The property itself is situated between the Daba and Wudang Mountains in the Shennongjia fault dome, which acts as the watershed between the Yangtze and Han Rivers. There are four major river systems: Xiangzi, Yandu, Nan and Du Rivers, and it is thought there are 453 mountain rivers in the property, with many being tributaries to the Yangtze. The property’s soils span from the yellow broad-leaved evergreen forest soils at lower altitudes to the podsolized dark brown soils towards the property’s high meadows and fir forests.
Shennongjia is predominantly characterised by a subtropical monsoon climate, though it resides in a climatic gradient where cold air from the north mixes with warmer air from the south, with distinct seasons being perceivable. Mean annual precipitation ranges between 700 and 2,700 mm and predominantly occurs between April and October and in the south of the property. Annual average temperatures range from 12oC to 17oC, though extreme temperatures have been recorded between minus 8oC in the coldest month of January and 43oC in the warmest month of July. The great variation in the property’s altitude, of about 2,700 metres, results in a clear gradient in climatic conditions, ranging from subtropical, warm temperate, temperate and cold temperate climates from the base to the top.
Over 3,600 plant species have been recorded within the property, which accounts for approximately 12.5% of China’s total floral richness. The property incorporates 588 genera (63% of China’s genera), with arboreal species being particularly well represented. Of the 267 floristic families supported within the property, the majority (62%) are Angiosperms, with the remaining families being split between Bryophyta (21%), Pteridophyta (15%) and Gymnosperms (2%).
The property can be divided altitudinally into six distinct habitats: subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests (400 - 1,000 metres a.s.l.), subtropical mixed evergreen and deciduous forests (1,000 to 1,700 metres a.s.l.), warm temperate deciduous forests (1,700 to 2,200 metres a.s.l.), temperate and mixed needle deciduous forests (2,200 to 2,600 metres a.s.l.), cold temperate coniferous forests (2,200 to 3,000 metres a.s.l) and subalpine fruticose and meadow communities (over 3,000 metres a.s.l). These habitats have distinct communities, often with a few key arboreal species (Zhang et al. 2009):
The subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests are the lower-most forest communities in the property and are predominated by beech and oaks, such as the Japanese oak (Cyclobalanopsis glauca) and sharpdent oak (C. oxyodon).
The subtropical mixed evergreen and deciduous forests have a similar arboreal composition to the forest communities below, consisting largely of beeches, e.g. engler beech (Fagus engleriana) and oaks, e.g. manyvei oak (C. multinervis). This habitat has been shown to contain the highest floristic species richness within the property (Zhao et al. 2005).
The warm temperate deciduous forests begin to change the arboreal composition to incorporate birch (Betula spp.) and chestnut (Castanea spp.).
The temperate and mixed needle deciduous forests are increasingly dominated by conifers such as farges fir (Abies fargesii) as altitude increases.
The cold temperate coniferous forest zone has lost the arboreal diversity of lower altitudes and is almost entirely made of conifer species.
The subalpine fruticose and meadow communities transition from woodland into shrub, as conifer species are replaced by Rhododendron spp., bamboo and juniper.
Overall, more than 90% of the property is forested according to the Management Plan, and contains some of the largest primary forests in Central China. There are 838 species of deciduous woody plants, spanning 245 genera, leading to some stating that the property has the richest assemblage of deciduous woody species in the world (Ying 2000).
A total of 105 plant species have been recorded that are considered threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, with many more species being recognised under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). There are 205 species and two genera that are considered endemic to the property, and 1,719 species are endemic to China, with the broader region being considered one of the most important in China for endemic species (Huang et al. 2011; López-Pujol et al. 2011). There are six distinct habitats within the property that are considered to be of particular importance for rare and endangered plant species:
Jiuchong River basin: Key habitat for Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis; EN) and orchid plants such as Dendrobium spp.
Yangquan River basin: Area with particularly rich populations of katsura tree and kiwi plants such as yangtao (Actinidia chinensis), as well as lady slipper orchids like Cypripedium japonicum (EN).
Yinyu River basin: Contains several species in the Actinidia genus as well as twoflower rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera biflora).
Changping River basin: Supports franchet lady slipper orchids (Paris polyphylla; EN), serrate clubmoss (Gyoerzua serrata) and Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis).
Majia River basin: Key habitat for Taiwan beech (Fagus hayatae; VU) and orchids such as yellowflower bletilla (Bletilla ochracea).
Shashuwan area: Supports Chinese yew, Actinidia spp. and orchids such as Calanthe discolour.
The property supports more than 600 vertebrate species, including 87 mammal, approximately 390 bird, 46 fish, 51 reptile and 36 amphibian species. Additionally, approximately 4,300 insect species have been recorded, spanning 2,200 genera and 295 families. The property supports 72% and 14% of the mammal species found in the county and province respectively, with similarly high values being found for birds, reptiles and amphibians.
Several mammal species of special conservation importance are found within the property, including the Golden or Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana, EN) which only occurs in the provinces of Sichuan, Gansu, Shanxi, and Hubei. The animal is an emblematic species in China, considered as a national treasure in the same way as pandas (Xiang et al. 2011). Other significant and often globally threatened mammal species include the clouded leopard (VU), dhole (EN), Asian black bear (VU), Indian civet (LC), musk deer (EN) and Chinese goral (VU) (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016).
The property’s avifauna is estimated to include at least 389 bird species. The property is an important habitat for both sedentary and migratory species, and harbours bird species of conservation concern, such as the reeve’s pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii), a species endemic to China and listed as globally Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016).
There are 51 known reptile species within the property, including threatened species such as the hundred-pace viper (Deinagkistrodon acutus), listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016). There are 31 amphibian species currently recorded within the property, perhaps most notable of these is the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus; CR), which is the largest known amphibian in the world. This species is endemic to the rocky mountain streams of China and is of interest as an evolutionary distinct species (Gang et al. 2004). The property is also known to support 46 fish species, one of which, the Shennong goby (Ctenogobius shennongensis) has its holotype location as Shennongjia. Finally, the property contains over 4,000 insect species, though this taxonomic group is less well understood that others.
There are 48 animal species that are considered threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN Red List 2016). Additionally, there are 13 animal species listed under Appendix I and 60 species listed under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). There are also considerable numbers of endemic species within the property, with 96 endemic vertebrates and 284 endemic invertebrates. The property, and the wider region, is also of high value for these restricted-range species as the impacts of climate change are increasingly felt, as the refugia of the past are also often the best suited areas as refugia for the future (López-Pujol et al. 2011).
Although the property is found in one of the better represented Udvardy biogeographical provinces on the World Heritage List (the Oriental Deciduous Forest), the Shennongjia regional Centre of Plant Diversity has been mentioned as a gap in representation of global biodiversity on the World Heritage List (Smith & Jakubowska 2000). The property is also situated in the Daba Mountains Evergreen Forests ecoregion and the Southwest China Temperate Forest priority ecoregion, both of which remain unrepresented on the World Heritage List. The wider region is also considered one of three centres of biodiversity in China (Ying 2000), and the property overlaps with an Important Bird Area (IBA) (BirdLife International 2016a) and an Endemic Bird Area (EBA), the Central Sichuan Mountains (BirdLife International 2016b).
As described above, the property supports high levels of species richness in several taxonomic groups, particularly plants of the subtropical mixed broadleaved evergreen and deciduous forests of the northern hemisphere. The property also harbours multiple species of particular conservation concern, including 105 plant and 48 animal species listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016). Furthermore, the property’s marked topography enables a long ecological continuity between subtropical forest and cold temperate scrub and thus provides a wide range of niches for a myriad of species (Zhao et al. 2005).
Evidence of human occupation 100,000 years ago have been found in the Xiniudong cave. More recently, the property is known to have been part of the Chu Kingdom for eight hundred years in the pre-Qin period (before 202 BC). In this period, there is evidence for migrations between provinces, especially Hubei’s neighbouring province to the north, Shaanxi. Governance of the territory changed often, especially between the Han dynasty (220 AD to 1643 AD) and Qing Dynasty (1643 to 1911 AD).
In the past, the property and its surroundings served as land to which deposed kings were exiled to. Up until the Song Dynasty (960 AD to 1279 AD), 14 kings were exiled to Fang County, in the west of Hubei province. Of these, the most famous example is the emperor of the Tang Dynasty, Li Xian, who was banished to this area in 686 AD for 13 years. In addition to exiled Kings, the region has acted as a refuge for ordinary people in the transition periods between Chinese dynasties. Due to Shennongjia’s steep terrain, dense forest and high mountains, the area has indeed long been considered as a safe haven to escape fighting between local warlords. Shennongjia’s rich natural heritage has thus played a contributing factor in the area’s strong cultural heritage.
The property has also been historically important internationally, as it is part of the ancient salt road, more colloquially known as the ‘southern silk road’. This ancient trade route crosses the Yangtze-Han Rivers and Sichuan-Hubei and was active for more than 1,000 years. The cultural heritage of the region therefore also has a unique combination of Chinese traditions and folklore and international customs.
LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION
A 2011 census of the Shennongjia Forest District estimated there to be 79,000 local residents, many of which reside in the region’s six main conurbations. In 2014, there were 18 villages with 6,999 recorded residents within the property (Chen et al. 2005). The majority of this population engages in tea forest farming, bee keeping, forest management and protection and were predominantly in favour of creating the Shennongjia Nature Reserve (Chen et al. 2005). There are an additional 7,388 permanent residents within the property’s buffer zone. According to the Management Plan, there are several ethnic minorities residing within the property, including people from the Tujia, Miao and Dong minority groups. Each group has a culture and religious beliefs that has a strong connection to the surrounding mountains and forests.
VISITORS AND VISITOR FACILITIES
The property started being a focus of tourism in the late 1980s and tourism has grown steadily since then, from approximately 140,000 visitors in 2006 to 520,200 visitors in 2013. It has been suggested that a significant contributing factor to the increased tourism in recent years has been the greater incorporation of flagship species such as the snub-nosed monkey into tourism efforts (Xiang et al. 2011). Tourism is highest at weekends and within the warmer months between July and October. At current growth rates, it is expected that the property will experience over 1 million tourists per year before 2020, which is still below the estimated carrying capacity of 1.8 million visitors (IUCN Evaluation). The property is currently well equipped to deal with visitors, with 350 tour guides, a museum, exhibition centre, 4 search and rescue centres, 95 viewing platforms, 17 shops, 45 parking lots, 48 washrooms and over 3,000 signs and notices.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND FACILITIES
Shennongjia has been an area of scientific interest, particularly for botanical research, since the late 19th century, with over 500 species already recorded in Shennongjia by 1890. Research has increased steadily since, with over 620 publications published referencing Shennongjia’s natural resources according to IUCN Evaluation. By the early 20th Century, there had been numerous scientific expeditions to Shennongjia, originating from several countries in Europe, North America and Asia. Notable early botanists include Ernest H. Wilson, Charles Sprague Sargent, Harry Smith and Armand David, all of whom wrote books on Shennongjia in the late 19th and early 20th Century. Since the 1920s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Research Institutes in Hubei Province have undertaken five systematic review of the property’s flora and fauna.
Scientific research within the property itself now requires that researchers apply for permits and provide research plans. According to the Management Plan, the property has a scientific research plan which incorporates measures to strengthen both domestic and international cooperation with universities and research institutes. There is also a plan to create a special research fund, which would aim to develop a series of scientific research programmes focusing on the property’s natural heritage. According to the Management Plan, this fund aims to be in the region of 1 million yuan (USD\$ 145,000) per year until 2018. In terms of research facilities, in 2010, the State Forestry Administration approved the creation of the Shennongjia Snub-nosed Monkey Conservation and Research Base and the Biodiversity Conservation and Research Laboratory in Guanmenshan was also established. The property has three permanent forest plots which were established to monitor forest dynamics.
The property’s local residents have had a long tradition of developing regulations to protect the property’s ecological integrity, as demonstrated by two stone tablets dating from the late 19th Century that bear inscriptions of ‘forbidden forest’. According to the Nomination File, the tradition of local resident participation remains an important part of the property’s management, with key activities including the facilitation of afforestation and strict regulations on building or hunting. The management of the property has been assigned to the Administrative Bureau of Hubei Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, which is under the leadership of the Forestry Administration Bureau of Hubei Province and the Government of Shennongjia Forest District of Hubei Province (Chen et al. 2005). The ten primary research and management bodies incorporate six management and two monitoring stations throughout the property. The bureau has created several management plans relating to the various components of the property, for example, the Global Geopark has its own management plan.
The property utilises a zoning approach to help sustainably control tourism. A rotation system has been proposed, where only a certain number of tourists would be allowed in parts of the property at once. The property’s administrative authority has also initiated a series of measures in an attempt to address the risk of over-visitation. These measures include limiting the number of tourists, limiting the length of stays, defining regulations to restrict detrimental behaviour, promoting environmental education, creating a shuttle bus to reduce the impact of traffic and improving sewage treatment facilities. The management authority has identified that monitoring and outreach are areas of management that could be improved. The current management plan for the property expires in 2018.
There are no mining or industrial activities within the property, though there is the national road 209, which crosses the property within the buffer zone and the regional airport is approximately 11km away from the property’s boundary. The residents within the property use the surrounding forest to gather wood and for growing tea. There has been no recorded incident of invasive species but forest pests have occurred, requiring the need for targeted culling. The most serious management constraint is that of tourism. The property is noted to have experienced very high levels of tourism during peak season in some years, which could adversely impact the ability of local wildlife to migrate around the property (Xiang et al. 2011), and cause soil erosion, deforestation (Li 2004) and the degradation of vegetation. An additional constraint faced by the management authorities are natural hazards, notably landslides and forest fires.
In 2015, there were 215 full-time personnel working in the property. Of these, 93 are administrative and professional technical staff responsible for the property’s research, promotion and education, law enforcement and general administration. The majority of these administrative and technical staff are educated to at least college level.
The proportion of the property’s budget that stems from financial revenue has been increasing annually. However, much of the property’s funding still comes from the Central Government of Hubei Province. The property plans to spend 1.8 million to 2.6 million yuan per year (USD 275,000 to 370,000) until 2018, the vast majority of which will be spent on conservation work.
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. of China, 9# Sanlihe Road, Beijing, 100835, China Tel: +86-10-58934062 Fax: +86-10-58933014 E-mail: email@example.com
The principal sources for the above information were the original nomination for World Heritage status, the IUCN evaluation report and the site’s management plan.
BirdLife International. (2016a). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Shennongjia Nature Reserve. Available from http://datazone.birdlife.org/site/factsheet/shennongjia-nature-reserve-iba-china-(mainland).
BirdLife International. (2016b). Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Central Sichuan Mountains. Available from http://datazone.birdlife.org/eba/factsheet/132.
Chen Z., Yang J. & Xie Z. (2005). Economic development of local communities and biodiversity conservation: A case study from Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China. Biodiversity & Conservation 14: 2095–2108.
Gang L., Baorong G. & Ermi Z. (2004). Andrias davidianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available from http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1272/0.
Huang J., Chen J., Ying J. & Ma K. (2011). Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 49: 81-94.
IUCN Red List. (2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available from <www.iucnredlist.org>.
Li Y. (2004). The effect of forest clear-cutting on habitat use in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Primates 45: 69-72.
López-Pujol J., Zhang F.-M., Sun H.-Q., Ying T.-S. & Ge S. (2011). Mountains of southern China as “plant museums” and “plant cradles”: Evolutionary and conservation insights. Mountain Research and Development 31: 261-269.
Smith G. & Jakubowska J. 2000. A global overview of protected areas on the World Heritage list of particular importance for biodiversity.
Xiang Z., Yu Y., Yang M., Yang J., Niao M. & Li M. (2011). Does flagship species tourism benefit conservation? A case study of the golden snub-nosed monkey in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. Chinese Science Bulletin 56: 2553-2558.
Ying J. (2000). Species diversity and distribution pattern of seed plants in China. Chinese Biodiversity 9: 393-398.
Zhang M., Xie Z., Xiong G. & Fan D. (2009). Structures and topographical pattern of the tree layer of Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon community in Shennongjia area, Hubei Province, China. Frontiers of Biology in China 4: 503-512.
Zhao C., Chen W., Tian Z. & Xie Z. (2005). Altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity in Shennongjia Mountains, Central China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 47: 1431-1449.