BLUE AND JOHN CROW MOUNTAINS
The Blue and John Crow Mountains act as a unique crucible of biological diversity and rich cultural heritage. Spanning a combination of mountain ranges, including Jamaica’s highest peak, Blue Mountain, the property’s rugged territory and forested slopes host over a thousand species of flowering plants and numerous species of particular conservation concern. Furthermore, it coincides with a Centre of Plant Diversity, an Endemic Bird Area and contains two of Jamaica’s five Alliance for Zero Extinction sites. The area is also home to the Maroon communities which used the Blue and John Crow Mountains as a refuge when fighting against the British in the 18th Century. The Maroon communities are also famed for their musical heritage, which is considered a masterpiece of oral human heritage. Although the property now contains few inhabitants, it remains a centre of particular biodiversity importance, as well as being a beacon of cultural heritage and pride for Jamaica as a nation.
Blue and John Crow Mountains
MIXED NATURAL & CULTURAL WORLD HERITAGE SITE
2015: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under Natural Criteria x + Cultural Criteria iii and vi.
STATEMENT OF OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE
The UNESCO World Heritage Committee issued the following Statement of Outstanding Universal Value at the time of inscription:
The cultural and natural heritage of the Blue and John Crow Mountains comprises 26,252 ha of tropical, montane rainforest within the larger Blue Mountain and John Crow Mountain ranges, located in the eastern part of Jamaica in the Caribbean. These two ranges cover approximately 20% of the island’s total landmass and are recognised for their biodiversity significance within the Caribbean Region. The property spans elevations from 850m to 2,256m above sea level (a.s.l) and is surrounded by a buffer zone of some 28,494 ha. The high elevation, rugged landscape and the north and south-facing slopes of the mountains of the property have resulted in a wide variety of habitat types with nine ecological communities within the upper montane forest of the Blue Mountains (over 1,000m) and John Crow Mountains (over 600m). These include a unique Mor Ridge Forest characterised by a deep layer of acidic humus with bromeliads and endangered tree species. Above 1,800m, the vegetation of the Blue Mountains is more stunted with some species restricted to these altitudes. Above 2,000m the forest is known as Elfin Forest due to the stunted and gnarled appearance of the trees which are heavily coated with epiphytes including hanging mosses, ferns and tiny orchids.
The Blue and John Crow Mountains property lies within the Jamaican Moist Forests Global 200 priority eco-region, and is part of one of the 78 most irreplaceable protected areas for the conservation of the world’s amphibian, bird and mammal species. Furthermore it coincides with a Centre of Plant Diversity; an Endemic Bird Area and contains two of Jamaica’s five Alliance for Zero Extinction sites. There is an exceptionally high proportion of endemic plant and animal species found in the property, Jamaica having evolved separately from other landmasses. In addition, the property hosts a number of globally endangered species, including several frog and bird species.
The Blue and John Crow Mountains property offered refuge to Maroons (former enslaved peoples) and therefore preserves the tangible cultural heritage associated with the Maroon story. This includes settlements, trails, viewpoints, hiding places, etc. that form the Nanny Town Heritage Route. The forests and their rich natural resources provided everything the Maroons needed to survive, to fight for their freedom, and to nurture their culture. Maroon communities still hold strong spiritual associations with these mountains, expressed through exceptional intangible manifestations.
Criterion (iii): The Blue and John Crow Mountains in combination with its cultural heritage, materialised by the Nanny Town Heritage Route and associated remains, i.e. secret trails, settlements, archaeological remains, look-outs, hiding places etc., bear exceptional witness to the phenomenon of grand marronage as characterized by Windward Maroon culture which, in the search for freedom from colonial enslavement, developed a profound knowledge of, and attachment to, their environment, that sustained and helped them to achieve autonomy and recognition.
Criterion (vi): Blue and John Crow Mountains is directly associated with events that led to the liberation, and continuing freedom and survival, of groups of fugitive enslaved Africans that found their refuge in the Blue and John Crow Mountains. The property conveys outstandingly its association with living traditions, ideas and beliefs that have ensured that survival, and the specificity and uniqueness of which was recognised by UNESCO in 2008 through its inscription in the Representative List of Intangible Heritage.
Criterion (x): The Blue and John Crow Mountains belongs to the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot and is an important centre for plant endemism in the Caribbean displaying 50% endemicity in the flowering plants at elevations above 900-1000 m a.s.l with between 30-40 % of these species found only within the property’s boundaries. One of two Centres of Plant Diversity in Jamaica, the property includes a reported 1,357 species of flowering plant of which approximately 294 are Jamaican endemics and 87 of these species are found only within the property. 61 species of liverwort and moss occur in the property as well as 11 species of lichen, all of which are endemic. Genera which are well represented in the endemic flora of the property include Pilea (12 spp); Lepanthes (12 spp); Psychotria (12 spp) and Eugenia (11 spp).
The Blue and John Crow Mountains overlaps with one of the world’s most irreplaceable protected areas, based on its importance for amphibian, bird and mammal species. The property hosts globally significant populations of bird species and represents a key part of the Jamaican Endemic Bird Area. It is important for a number of restricted-range species as well as a large number of migratory birds such as the Petchary (Tyrannus domenciensis) Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknellii) and Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii). The property contains two of Jamaica’s five Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, hosting a significant number of globally endangered species, including the critically endangered plant species Podocarpus urbanii, Eugenia kellyana and Psychotria danceri. The property is also home to several endangered frog and bird species including the critically endangered Arntully Robber Frog, Eleutherodactylus orcutti and the Jamaican Peak Frog, E. alticola. Threatened bird species include Bicknell's Thrush C. bicknellii, the Jamaican Blackbird, Nesopsar nigerrimus, as well as the Yellow-billed Parrot, Amazona collaria and Black-billed Parrot, Amazona agilis. The only terrestrial non-flying mammal species found in the property is the threatened rodent Hutia, Geocapromys brownii with a population restricted to John Crow Mountains.
The Blue and John Crow Mountains protects the most intact forests within the upper elevations of the Blue and John Crow Mountains. The more disturbed lower elevation areas are contained within the surrounding buffer zone. The property is legally well protected as it falls within the boundaries of the larger Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park and is aligned with the park’s Preservation Zone, providing the strictest levels of protection within the zoning system. The area is rugged, remote with limited access thereby providing additional security against some threats. The boundaries of the property are well designed to include the key attributes of its biodiversity values. Nevertheless there are a range of current and potential threats to the property, including from invasive alien species, encroachment, mining, fire and climate change. The majority of threats emanate from the interface between the higher elevation property and lowlands within the buffer zone. The Blue and John Crow Mountains encompass the core cultural properties, sites and vestiges that support their significance as the refuge of the Windward Maroons. Their physical fabric is in a fair condition. The relationships and dynamic functions present in the landscape and the living properties essential to its distinctive character are maintained but require strengthening. The effective protection of the buffer zone is essential in order to sustain the integrity of the property.
The cultural heritage of the Blue and John Crow Mountains related to the story of the Windward Maroons exhibits a high degree of authenticity in terms of location and setting. The rugged topography and the impenetrable vegetation convey the function as refuge played by the area. Continuity of names of specific places and stories associated with them contribute to sustaining their authenticity. However, the most important aspect of authenticity for this cultural heritage is the meaning and significance attributed by Maroons to their heritage, and the strength and depth of linkages established by them to it. The mountains are also home to Maroon ancestors' spirits and therefore provide a link for Maroons to their past and preceding generations.
Protection and management requirements
The property enjoys good levels of legal protection as it lies within the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park. As such it is protected by a suite of legislation including the Natural Resources (National Park) Act (1993) and its regulations; the Forestry Act (1996); the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act (1991) and the Protected National Heritage under Jamaica National Heritage Trust Act (1985). The property is also covered by a well-structured 5 year management plan.
The Blue and John Crow Mountains is subject to a complex governance regime that ensures broader engagement but should strive for continually improved inter-organisational coordination and cooperation. The management of the property recognises the complex interplay between its natural and cultural values and the Maroon local communities are positively engaged with the site and its management. The integration in protection and management activities of Maroon community members helps sustain their links with their heritage and supports the state agencies in achieving their mandates for the safeguarding of the property. Protection of the natural values of the property is also dependent to large extent on the sympathetic management of the lower elevation buffer zone which has been subject to a history of deforestation, agricultural land use and encroachment. Active and sustained management of the edge effects from surrounding lands will be critical to ensure issues such as buffer zone planning, development and land use do not impact on the property. It will be important to manage the potential impacts of invasive alien species, fire and encroachment from both small scale shifting agriculture and commercial coffee growing. Vigilance will be needed to ensure that mining exploration and/or operations are not permitted to overlap with the property, and legislation and policy should be tightened to protect the World Heritage site in perpetuity from mining, in line with the established position of the World Heritage Committee and leading industry bodies. Monitoring of climate change impact on the elevation sensitive ecology of the property will be important to ensure proactive planning and management of this threat.
Adequate and increased capacity of staff and funding will be needed to manage the property in the face of the threats outlined above. Sustainable funding will be necessary in particular to strengthen management of the buffer zone and effectively address issues such as planning for sustainable development, support for livelihoods and enhanced community engagement. Stringent monitoring of activities carried out within the property and its buffer zone is also fundamental.
IUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORY
|Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park:||II|
|Blue Mountain Forest Reserve:||VI|
|Cambridge Backlands Forest Reserve:||VI|
|Spring Estate Forest Reserve:||VI|
|Fort George Forest Reserve:||VI|
Greater Antillean (8.40.13).
The Blue and John Crow Mountains (BJCM) World Heritage property, which is located in the eastern part of Jamaica, covers approximately 20% of the islands total landmass. Jamaica is the third largest island in the Greater Antilles, a group of islands within the broader Caribbean. The property is located north of the Island’s capital (Kingston) in the Surrey County. The outer boundary of the buffer zone overlaps with the boundaries of the national park and additionally includes a part of the upper and middle Rio Grande Valley. The central point of the property is 76o 32’ 54.252” W and 18o 4’ 25.096’ N.
DATES AND HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT
1886: E.D. Hooper produces a report documenting the use of Jamaica’s forests and recommends the restoration of forests in the Blue Mountains.
1937: The first formal protection of the BJCM is initiated with the passing of the Forest Act. This effectively establishes the Forestry Branch under the Lands Department and the Blue Mountains Forest Reserve is put under its control.
1942: The Forestry Department is established within the Ministry of Agriculture.
1950: The Blue Mountains Forest Reserve is designated under the new Act in 1950.
1979 – 1999: A focus on forest plantations, notably Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea) is enacted through the Forest Industry Development Company (FIDCO).
1989: The Protected Areas Resources Conservation (PARC) project is launched.
1993: The Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park is gazetted – becoming Jamaica’s first and only national park.
1996: A new Forest Act is promulgated.
2001: The National Forest Management Plan is produced.
2012: To formalise the on-going collaboration with the Maroon communities and strengthen the work of the National Park in promoting and preserving Maroon heritage, a Maroon community committee is established.
2015: The Blue and John Crow Mountains is inscribed on the World Heritage List under natural criterion x and cultural criteria iii and vi.
The lands in the World Heritage property are state owned. More precisely, they are vested in the commissioner of Lands in trust for the Government of Jamaica, on behalf of the people of Jamaica. The majority of the land in the buffer zone is also owned by the state. The area within the buffer zone, which is not state owned, and found predominantly within the Rio Grande Valley, is privately owned by Maroon communities.
The World Heritage property covers 26,252 ha and is surrounded by a 28,494 ha buffer zone.
Two mountainous blocks dominate the centre of Jamaica, the Main Block and the Eastern Mountain Mass. The property is located in the Eastern Mountain Mass, where the topography ranges from 850 metres above sea level (a.s.l.) to 2250 m a.s.l. A third mountain range, the Port Royal Mountains, also passes through the property’s western area.
The Blue Mountains are Jamaica’s highest mountains, peaking at around 2,250 m a.s.l., with several peaks above or close to 2,000 m a.s.l. The exceptionally rugged terrain and steep slopes are a product of rapid uplift and a wide diversity of environmental conditions, e.g. altitude, exposition, rock chemistry and micro-climate. Comparatively, the John Crow Mountain system is a limestone plateau which does not rise above 1,140 m a.s.l. The property is testament to a 100 million year timespan of geological development of the Caribbean tectonic plate with the oldest geology found within the Blue Mountains. Until approximately 14 million years ago Jamaica was largely covered by the sea until new tectonic processes began and Jamaica progressively rose out of the sea. This tectonic uplift is still active and is responsible for earthquakes on an occasional basis. The property’s soils are predominantly siliceous, very porous and notably erosive with particular susceptibility to nutrient leaching which results in nitrogen and phosphorus poor soils. The majority of the property is covered by various types of forest, whereas the buffer zone has largely been deforested and is now a mosaic of agricultural and fallow land covers. These two mountain ranges are separated by Jamaica’s largest river (by surface-water runoff), the Rio Grande. Additionally, multiple waterfalls and springs are dotted throughout the property.
The property ranges from a tropical climate at the lower elevations, to the cooler cloud forest and eventually a montane environment along the mountain ridges. Jamaica more generally has a tropical maritime climate. The lowlands have an annual mean temperature of 26oC but this drops to 13oC at the Blue Mountain peaks. Rainfall varies across the island, with an average of 270 cm in the National Park but is in excess of 500 cm in the John Crow Mountains. There are two seasons for heavy rain, the first is between September and November and the second between May and June (Levy & Koenig, Date Unknown).
Of particular note are the moist forests of the Greater Antilles, which are known for their distinctive flora and unique taxa. Partly due to the area’s rugged terrain and comparable inaccessibility, the area is an exemplar for some of the last remaining areas of contiguous natural forest in not only Jamaica, but the whole Caribbean region. The largest forest community within the Blue Mountains is the upper montane rainforest over shale. There are nine natural communities within the upper montane forests (above 1000 m a.s.l.) on the south-facing slopes of the Blue Mountains. These include the unique Mor Ridge Forest characterised by a deep layer of acidic humus, bromeliads and threatened arboreal species. Above 1,800 m a.s.l., the Blue Mountain vegetation is more stunted and species such as Eugenia alpina and Clethra alexandra are restricted to these altitudes. Above 2000 m a.s.l., the forest is known as Elfin forest due to the stunted and weathered appearance of the trees. The trees are also covered with epiphytes, hanging mosses, ferns and miniature orchids. It should be noted that the full floral diversity of the property has not been satisfactorily surveyed, but the nomination file suggests that over 600 species of flowering plants were identified in 1993. Subsequent additional information provided in the property’s nomination file has increased this figure to 1357 species of flowering plant. A number of endemic species can also be found within the property, notably Blecchum killipii, Calyptronoma occidentalis and Cinnamodendron corticosum. The property also contains very rare species (Judd et al., 2011), for example Wercklea flavoivirens, a species thought to have no remaining populations in the wild until a survey within the property in 1992. The property also reportedly contains half of Jamaica’s 530 recorded species of ferns, and 106 tree species. The main types of forest found are: the montane forest over shale in the Blue Mountains, and the wet limestone forest which is found in the John Crow Mountains. Species of particular conservation concern include Podocarpus urbanii (CR), Eugenia kellyana (CR) and Psychotria danceri (CR).
Native mammal species are poorly represented in Jamaica, with only one non-flying native species (a rodent) and a few bat species. Jamaica does, however, have a greater assemblage of endemic bird, reptile, amphibian and invertebrate species. For example, there are 27 endemic species of reptile and 20 endemic amphibian species in Jamaica, and more than 500 land snail species. The property is reported to contain 13 species of mammals, 101 birds (32 of which are stated as endemic), 13 amphibians (12 of which are stated as endemic), 20 reptiles (18 stated as endemic), and 8 species of fish. Jamaica’s avifauna consists of 256 species of land bird, 30 of which are considered endemic. This resulted in Jamaica being ranked the most speciose island for endemic birds amongst all oceanic islands (WWF 2001). The BJCM provides a permanent or seasonal residence to an estimated 220 migrant bird species and 25 endemic species, which is partly responsible for the property being regarded as the second most important bird area on the whole island (BirdLife Jamaica 2003). Jamaica only has one remaining non-volant mammal, the Hutia (Geocapromys brownie). This species is thought to increasingly depend on the forests found within the property, especially the Cambridge Backlands and areas in the north of the property. The property’s avifauna consists of 74 non-breeding species, 25 transient species and 50 winter-visiting species. Jamaica’s herpetofauna is not only diverse, but is characterised by high levels of endemism (Wilson 2011). Amphibian species of particular concern include Eleutherodactylus andrewsi (the Jamaican Rumpspot Frog, EN), E. orcutti (Arntully robber Frog, CR) and E. nubicola (EN). The diversity of invertebrates is less well known, but there is a high species richness for snails, velvet worms and aquatic invertebrates. Additionally, there are known to be hundreds of species of butterfly and moth within Jamaica more broadly, many of which are endemic (Brown, Martin and Heineman, 1972), but exact populations are unknown. Despite this, there is one endemic species of butterfly of note: the Giant Swallowtail Butterfly (Pterourus homerus), which is reportedly the largest butterfly in the western hemisphere.
The BJCM National Park was first nominated to become a World Heritage Site in 2010, but was not inscribed on the World Heritage List at the time. The broader region is known as being an area of particularly high endemism, and is one of 35 global biodiversity hotspots as identified by Mittermeier et al., (2011). The previous IUCN evaluation concluded that BJCM National Park had the “highest number of endemic land bird species among sites in the oceanic islands of the world”, whilst simultaneously stressing its importance for bird migratory species, both from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This high level of endemism, at least at the genus level, ranks third highest amongst the world’s 35 biodiversity hotspots. The BJCM contains two of Jamaica’s five Alliance for Zero extinction sites and was also identified as a Centre of Plant Diversity. The property also acts as a source of beneficial ecosystems services, the benefits from which are felt well beyond the boundaries of the property (Kellermann et al., 2008). Due to the property being suspected to contain many species which have yet to be identified, including those that are new to science, the property resembles an incalculably valuable area for conservation.
The cultural heritage of the BJCM centres on ‘Nanny Town’ which comprises part of the larger ‘Nanny Town Cultural Heritage Route’ (NTCHR). The NTCHR represents the movement of enslaved people during the wars against colonial powers in the 18th Century. It is comprised of a number of interconnected trails and battle sites that took place between the Maroons – who were led by Maroon Queen Nanny – and the English. To this day, some of these trails are used by Maroons to interlink various communities. Nanny Town itself is now effectively an archaeological site, but used to be the principal settlement of the Windward Maroons. Multiple archaeological projects have taken place over the last couple of decades which has resulted in the collection of a number of items of high cultural heritage value. In 1987, the Maroon Heritage Research Project (MHRP) was initiated which aimed to not only conduct archaeological surveys, but also to map and excavate Maroon sites in Jamaica and Suriname. The excavation of Nanny Town indicated that there were three occupational phases of the site, the first of which seemed to predate the Maroon existence. Although Nanny Town is arguably the most high-profile site of the property, there are many more sites spread over the Portland Parish and other Parishes such as St. Thomas. The Blue and John Crow Mountains remain a sacred site by the Maroons, as it is believed that the spirits of ancestors live in the locations where they were buried. Music plays an important role in Maroon communities to this day, especially in religious ceremonies such as the Kromanti Play, which involves the use of the Kromanti drums and Kromanti songs and dance. In 2005, UNESCO declared the Moore Town Maroon community’s music as a masterpiece of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity. Another unique facet of Maroon culture is the language. The fusion of individuals from many different parts of the world and the relative isolation of the Maroon communities in the hills of the Blue Mountains led to a unique language which has been shown to be grammatically similar to the general Jamaican Creole or “patois”, but phonologically different and includes some Islamic words. Maroon culture also puts emphasis on hunting, and the use of traditional herbs, with some outputs now being world famous, such as ‘jerk’ food.
LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION
Because BJCM is a mixed World Heritage Site, the integration of cultural heritage and the community is integral for the successful management of the site. The local Maroon communities share a strong and longstanding identity with the natural values of the site and strongly supported the inscription of the site on the World Heritage List. The core property does not, however, include any inhabitants, though the buffer zone overlaps with approximately 59 communities, which contain an estimated population of 40,000.
VISITORS AND VISITOR FACILITIES
Tourism activities within the Blue and John crow Mountain National Park are managed by the Jamaican Conservation and Development Trust (JCDT). Whilst the National Park has two major recreational areas, the property has only one – the Portland Gap and a section of the Blue Mountain Peak Trail. Accommodation at the Portland Gap consists of two wooden cabins, which contain dormitories, a kitchen and also toilet facilities. There is an established network of trails within the property which contain information boards and interpretative signs. For example, approximately 1,500 hikers use the Peak Trail each year. Comparatively, there are thought to be around 12,000 visitors to the property overall each year (Otuokon, Chai & Beale, 2012), and this figure is increasingly annually. The majority of these visitors will pass through Holywell, which acts as the ‘base’ for the National Park. Facilities here are more developed and include a kids’ discovery zone, a visitor centre with exhibits, furnished cabins and campsites.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND FACILITIES
There has been little taxonomic research at the property, and therefore there are data deficiencies and predicted gaps in the representation of the biological assemblages. This is particularly true for invertebrates, but also vertebrates such as amphibians and reptiles. The promotion of research that will inform park management whilst simultaneously not threatening the park resources is an objective of the park’s management. Researchers must currently apply to the National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA) for permission to conduct field research. Between 2005 and 2009, park staff accompanied 11 researchers into the field to share knowledge and help reduce threats to resources.
The Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) through NEPA delegates the management of the property to the JCDT. Because the property is largely made of forest, and indeed a forest reserve, Jamaica’s Forestry Department (FD) is involved through a co-management agreement with NRCA and JCDT since 2000. More recently, the Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT) has also joined the agreement.
The BJCM National Park has a well-structured 5-year management plan that covers the period from 2011 to 2016. The plan has been built upon the foundations of continuous plans since 1993 when the National Park was first established. The planning, regulation and land use of the lower elevation buffer zone is considered as critical in ensuring that the overall landscape remains intact. The number of staff patrols has increased considerably in the last decade from 43 patrols in 2005 to 128 in 2014. There are also public awareness campaigns, community conservation programmes and school education programmes.
There have been some concerns regarding the site’s integrity issues, particularly on the site’s lower elevations (Chai & Tanner, 2010). Particular threats to the property include deforestation (Chai, Tanner & McLaren, 2009), insufficient environmental education for the surrounding population, inadequate environmental enforcement, unclear boundaries, insufficient resources, as well as conflicting policies from the different government agencies. Whilst there is no data on this, there is no reason to assume that local residents in the buffer zone and surrounding villages do not use the natural resources of the national park for construction, charcoal, firewood, as well as other uses. This is a point of concern as some species are thought to be continually declining if not already extinct in the region (Graves 2011; Wilson 2011). As is common in other island settings, the presence of invasive species can act as a real management constraint (Bellingham, Tanner & Healey, 2005). Particular invasive species of note include the feral pigs, white tailed deer and also a large number of invasive plant species.
The Acting Park Manager simultaneously acts as the Executive Director of the JCDT. There are seven processional park rangers, and also a number of programme managers. The park rangers are led by a Chief of Corps and are responsible for the implementation of a number of management activities structured thematically as programmes (e.g. natural heritage, cultural heritage, education and public involvement and recreation). IUCN has noted that management capacity is limited, which raises concerns regarding the capacity to address issues within the property.
The government’s core budget, which is provided through NEPA, constitutes an estimated 30% of the annual budget required for park operations. Additional funding is sourced from revenue streams from recreational areas (about 10%) and a similar amount from the Jamaica National Parks Trust Fund (JNPTF). Half of the budget is therefore based upon relatively secure sources, whereas the remainder has to be constantly raised by the managing JCDT.
Jamaica National Heritage Trust, 79 Duke Street, Kingston, Jamaica. (876) 922 – 1287/8.
The principal sources for the above information were the original nomination and re-nomination for World Heritage status, the IUCN evaluation reports and the site’s management plan.
Bellingham, P. J., Tanner, E. V., & Healey, J. R. (2005). Hurricane disturbance accelerates invasion by the alien tree Pittosporum undulatum in Jamaican montane rain forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 16 (6), 675-684.
Birdlife Jamaica. (2003). Unpublished Report from the Second National Important Bird Areas (IBA) Workshop. BirdLife, 2010
Brown, Martin F. & Bernard Heineman. 1972. Jamaica and its Butterflies.
Chai, S. L., Tanner, E., & McLaren, K. (2009). High rates of forest clearance and fragmentation pre-and post-National Park establishment: The case of a Jamaican montane rainforest. Biological Conservation, 142(11), 2484-2492.
Chai, S. L., & Tanner, E. (2010). Are We Losing the Best Parts of Our Protected Areas in Tropical Mountains?. Biotropica, 42(6), 739-747.
Graves, G.R., 2014. Historical decline and probable extinction of the Jamaican Golden Swallow Tachycineta euchrysea euchrysea. Bird Conservation International, 24(02), pp.239-251.
Judd, W.S., Ionta, G.M., Endara, L. and St. E. Campbell, K.C., 2011. Miconia pseudorigida (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) re-collected in the John Crow Mountains, Jamaica, with notes on its conservation status. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, pp.727-732.
Kellermann, J. L., Johnson, M. D., Stercho, A. M., & Hackett, S. C. (2008). Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms. Conservation Biology, 22(5), 1177-1185.
Levy, K. Koenig, S. (Date Unknown). Jamaica: A country factsheet. Birdlife International.
Mittermeier, R. A., Turner, W. R., Larsen, F. W., Brooks, T. M., & Gascon, C. (2011). Global biodiversity conservation: the critical role of hotspots. Biodiversity hotspots (pp. 3-22). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Otuokon, S., Chai, S. L., & Beale, M. (2012). Using tourism to conserve the mist forests and mysterious cultural heritage of the Blue and John Cow Mountains National Park, Jamaica. PARKS. 18(2), 144
Wilson, B.S., 2011. Conservation of Jamaican amphibians and reptiles. Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas, 2, pp.273-310.
WWF. (2001). Jamaica Moist Forests. World Wildlife Fund Full Report Available at: http://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/nt0131. Accessed: 04/01/2016